Singapore Optometric Association

IMI – Interventions for Controlling Myopia Onset and Progression Report

Myopia has been predicted to affect approximately 50% of the world’s population based
on trending myopia prevalence figures. Critical to minimizing the associated adverse
visual consequences of complicating ocular pathologies are interventions to prevent or
delay the onset of myopia, slow its progression, and to address the problem of mechanical
instability of highly myopic eyes. Although treatment approaches are growing in number,
evidence of treatment efficacy is variable. This article reviews research behind such
interventions under four categories: optical, pharmacological, environmental (behavioral),
and surgical. In summarizing the evidence of efficacy, results from randomized controlled
trials have been given most weight, although such data are very limited for some
treatments. The overall conclusion of this review is that there are multiple avenues for
intervention worthy of exploration in all categories, although in the case of optical,
pharmacological, and behavioral interventions for preventing or slowing progression of
myopia, treatment efficacy at an individual level appears quite variable, with no one
treatment being 100% effective in all patients. Further research is critical to
understanding the factors underlying such variability and underlying mechanisms, to
guide recommendations for combined treatments. There is also room for research into
novel treatment options.